• Population 1,124,753
  • Area (km2) 17,360
  • GDP per capita (USD) 3,941.90
  • TPES (Mtoe) N/A
  • Energy intensity
    (toe/103 2010 USD)
  • CO2 emissions - energy (MtCO2) N/A
download eswatini's eira 2019 profile

Eswatini’s overall risk level against
the assessed areas is moderate.

While there are some policies and measures in place, more concrete steps must be taken to strengthen Eswatini’s performance across all indicators and underlying sub-indicators. Particular attention should be given to increasing transparency and reinforcing respect for property rights.

risk level

Unpredictable policy and regulatory change remains the lowest risk. It is followed by discrimination between foreign and domestic investors, which has increased compared to 2018. Breach of State obligations continues to be the highest risk area.

  • 41%
    Unpredictable policy and regulatory changes
  • 47%
    Discrimination between foreign and domestic investors
  • 56%
    Breach of state obligations

indicator performance

Eswatini has performed moderately on three of the EIRA indicators, and it has a good score on one indicator. It has maintained a score of 76 on foresight of policy and regulatory change. The score for regulatory environment and investment conditions has gone up by 3 points and is now at 60. On the other hand, the performance on management of decision-making processes has gone down compared to last year and stands at 56. On rule of law, it has once again scored 44 points.

Sub-indicator performance

On a more detailed level, Eswatini’s overall sub-indicator performance is moderate. Communication of vision and policies continues to be the highest-scoring sub-indicator (78), followed by robustness of policy goals and commitments and institutional governance, both with 75 points. Restrictions on FDI stands at 70, while management and settlement of investor-State disputes is at 55. Regulatory effectiveness has received a score of 50 after increasing 6 points since last year. The performance on transparency has gone down from 44 to 36. Respect for property rights continues to be the lowest-scoring sub-indicator with 33 points.