• Population 1,136,191
  • Area (km2) 17,360
  • GDP per capita (USD) 4,106.19
  • TPES (Mtoe) N/A
  • Energy intensity
    (toe/103 2010 USD)
  • CO2 emissions - energy (MtCO2) 1.1

Eswatini’s overall risk level against
the assessed areas is moderate.

While there are some improvements in Eswatini’s performance compared to EIRA 2020, further steps must be taken to build on the work done. Particular attention should be given to reinforcing the respect for property rights.

risk level

Of the three risks assessed in EIRA, unpredictable policy and regulatory change is lower compared to discrimination between domestic and foreign investors and breach of State obligations.
  • 38%
    Unpredictable policy and regulatory changes
  • 45%
    Discrimination between foreign and domestic investors
  • 51%
    Breach of state obligations

indicator performance

Eswatini’s score is good on one indicator, and moderate on three indicators. It has a good score on foresight of policy and regulatory change (76). Its score on management of decision-making processes has increased from 56 to 59, while on regulatory environment and investment conditions it is 56. Its score on the indicator rule of law has also improved from 44 to 49.

Sub-indicator performance

On a more detailed level, Eswatini’s overall sub-indicator performance is moderate. Communication of vision and policies is the highest-scoring sub-indicator (78), followed by robustness of policy goals and commitments and institutional governance, both at 75. Its score on management and settlement of investor-State disputes has increased from 55 to 65, while the score on restrictions on FDI stands at 60. On regulatory effectiveness, its score has improved from 50 to 52, and on transparency from 36 to 43. Respect for property rights continues to be the lowest-scoring sub-indicator at 33.