• Population 18,276,452
  • Area (km2) 2,724,902
  • GDP per capita (USD) 9,812.62
  • TPES (Mtoe) 75.76
  • Energy intensity
    (toe/103 2010 USD)
  • CO2 emissions - energy (MtCO2) 214.0

Kazakhstan’s overall risk level against
the assessed areas is low.

While Kazakhstan has the relevant policies and measures in place, there is potential for improvement. Attention should be given to strengthening the country’s regulatory effectiveness.

risk level

Of the three risks assessed in EIRA, unpredictable policy and regulatory change is lower compared to breach of State obligations and discrimination between domestic and foreign investors.
  • 34%
    Unpredictable policy and regulatory changes
  • 38%
    Discrimination between foreign and domestic investors
  • 38%
    Breach of state obligations

indicator performance

Kazakhstan has a very good performance on one indicator, a good performance on one indicator and a moderate performance on the remaining two indicators. Compared to EIRA 2020, its score on the indicator management of decision-making processes has improved by three points, reaching 81. Its score on rule of law is 63. On foresight of policy and regulatory change, its score has increased from 53 to 56. Its score on regulatory environment and investment conditions is the same as in EIRA 2020 (44).

Sub-indicator performance

On a more detailed level, Kazakhstan’s overall sub-indicator performance is good. The highest-scoring sub-indicator is transparency at 86, followed by institutional governance and management and settlement of investor-State disputes, both at 75. It has a score of 70 on the sub-indicator communication of vision and policies. Its score on two sub-indicators, restrictions on FDI and respect for property rights, is 50. On robustness of policy goals and commitments, it has scored 42, the same as in EIRA 2020. The lowest-scoring sub-indicator is regulatory effectiveness at 37.