• Population 4,176,873
  • Area (km2) 75,420
  • GDP per capita (USD) 15,575.07
  • TPES (Mtoe) 4.64
  • Energy intensity
    (toe/103 2010 USD)
  • CO2 emissions - energy (MtCO2) 9.61

Panama’s overall risk level against
the assessed areas is low.

While Panama has the relevant policies and measures in place, there is potential for improvement. Attention should be given to better communicating the existing policies and plans to investors.

risk level

Among the three risks covered by EIRA, discrimination between foreign and domestic investors and unpredictable policy and regulatory change are lower compared to breach of State obligations.
  • 37%
    Unpredictable policy and regulatory changes
  • 32%
    Discrimination between foreign and domestic investors
  • 41%
    Breach of state obligations

indicator performance

Panama’s performance is good on two of the EIRA indicators, and it is moderate on two indicators. It has a score of 77 on management of decision-making processes, and a score of 67 on regulatory environment and investment conditions. The indicators rule of law and foresight of policy and regulatory change are at 59 and 52, respectively.

Sub-indicator performance

On a more detailed level, Panama’s sub-indicator performance continues to be good. The highest-scoring sub-indicator is transparency at 92, followed by robustness of policy goals and commitments at 75, and restrictions on FDI at 70. The sub-indicators regulatory effectiveness and institutional governance stand at 64 and 63, respectively. Its performance on the sub-indicators management and settlement of investor-State disputes (60) and respect for property rights (58) is moderate. On communication of vision and policies, it has a low score of 29.