• Population 4,176,873
  • Area (km2) 75,320
  • GDP per capita (USD) 15,592.57
  • TPES (Mtoe) 4.3
  • Energy intensity
    (toe/103 2010 USD)
  • CO2 emissions - energy (MtCO2) 9.3

Panama’s overall risk level against
the assessed areas is low.

While Panama has the relevant policies and measures in place, there is potential for improvement. Attention should be given to better communicating the country’s vision and policies.

risk level

Of the three risks assessed in EIRA, discrimination between domestic and foreign investors is lower compared to unpredictable policy and regulatory change and breach of State obligations.
  • 34%
    Unpredictable policy and regulatory changes
  • 32%
    Discrimination between foreign and domestic investors
  • 41%
    Breach of state obligations

indicator performance

Panama’s performance is good on three indicators, and it is moderate on one indicator. It has a score of 77 on management of decision-making processes and 67 on regulatory environment and investment conditions. Its score on foresight of policy and regulatory change has increased and now stands at 61. On rule of law, it has a score of 59.

Sub-indicator performance

On a more detailed level, Panama’s sub-indicator performance is good. The highest-scoring sub-indicator is transparency at 92, followed by robustness of policy goals and commitments at 83 and restrictions on FDI at 70. The sub-indicators regulatory effectiveness and institutional governance stand at 64 and 63, respectively. Its performance on the indicators management and settlement of investor-State disputes (60) and respect for property rights (58) is moderate. The score on communication of vision and policies has increased from 29 to 39.